The barbiturates are nonselective central nervous system depressants which are primarily used as sedative hypnotics and also anticonvulsants in subhypnotic doses.
Phenobarbital has the lowest lipid solubility, lowest plasma binding, lowest brain protein binding, the longest delay in onset of activity, and the longest duration of action. At the opposite extreme is secobarbital which has the highest lipid solubility, plasma protein binding, brain protein binding, the shortest delay in onset of activity, and the shortest duration of action. Butabarbital is classified as an intermediate barbiturate.
The plasma half-life for pentobarbital in adults is 15 to 50 hours and appears to be dose dependent.
Barbiturates are metabolized primarily by the hepatic microsomal enzyme system, and the metabolic products are excreted in the urine, and less commonly, in the feces. Approximately 25 to 50 percent of a dose of aprobarbital or phenobarbital is eliminated unchanged in the urine, whereas the amount of other barbiturates excreted unchanged in the urine is negligible. The excretion of unmetabolized barbiturate is one feature that distinguishes the long-acting category from those belonging to other categories which are almost entirely metabolized. The inactive metabolites of the barbiturates are excreted as conjugates of glucuronic acid.
How does this medicine work? What are its effects?
Phenobarbital belongs to the class of medications called barbiturates. It is used in the treatment of insomnia and has a sedative to relieve symptoms of anxiety or tension. It is also used to reduce some forms of seizures. It works by slowing down the brain and the nervous system.
Phenobarbital is also used to reduce bilirubin levels in newborn babies. Bilirubin is a substance produced by the body and killed by the liver. Occasionally, a newborn’s liver takes a long time to start working effectively.
This medicine is available under different brand names or in different presentations, or both. A specific brand of this medication may not be available here. In addition, some forms of this medicine may be used against this condition.
Your doctor may have suggested this medicine for this condition. If you have not discussed this with your doctor, or if you are not sure why you are taking this medicine, check it out. Do not stop taking this medicine without first consulting your doctor.
Do not give this medicine to anyone, even someone who has the same symptoms as yours. This medication may have been harmful to people for whom it has not been prescribed.
In what forms does this medicine occur?
30 mg per mL
One mL of sterile injection solution contains 30 mg of sodium phenobarbital. Nonmedicinal ingredients: hydrochloric acid for pH correction, benzyl alcohol (as a preservative), water for injection and propylene glycol.
120 mg per mL
One mL of sterile injection solution contains 120 mg of sodium phenobarbital. Nonmedicinal ingredients: hydrochloric acid for pH correction, benzyl alcohol (as a preservative), water for injection and propylene glycol.
How should this medication be used?
Adults (prevention of seizures): The recommended adult dose to prevent seizures is 30 mg to 250 mg daily as a single dose or divided doses. The maximum dose is 600 mg daily.
Children (prevention of seizures): In children, the recommended dose is 1 to 6 mg / kg daily, as a single dose or divided doses.
Adults (treatment of insomnia / sedation): The recommended adult dose for insomnia is 100 mg to 200 mg taken at bedtime. The recommended adult dose for sedation is 30 mg to 90 mg daily in two or three divided doses.
Children (sedative): The recommended dose for children is 2 mg for each kilogram of body weight, taken three times daily.
There are several factors that can be considered in the determination of a person’s needs: weight, health, and other medications. If your doctor has recommended a dose other than those listed here, do not change the way you take the medicine without first consulting it.
This medication may be addictive if taken for an extended period of time. You may be experiencing abruptly after taking this medicine after long-term use. If you are planning on stopping the medication, your doctor may recommend that you reduce the dose to decrease the effect of withdrawal.
It is very important that this medicine is taken as directed by your doctor. If you take this medication on a regular basis, do not stop taking it to your doctor, and do not increase the dosage without talking to your doctor.
If you miss a dose, take the medicine as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, do not worry about the dose and back to the usual dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose of this medicine. If you are unsure of what to do after a dose, ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice.
Do not dispose of medicines in waste water (eg, in the sink or in the toilet bowl) or with household waste. Ask your pharmacist how to get rid of unused or expired medications.
In which cases is this medicine not recommended?
Do not use phenobarbital in the following circumstances:
are allergic to phenobarbital or any of the ingredients of this medication
an elderly person who is confused at night or agitated by sedative medications;
kidney failure (kidney)
liver failure (liver)
reduced lung function
severe respiratory depression
the presence of sleep apnea;
an uncontrolled pain.
What are the possible side effects of this medicine?
Many medications can cause side effects. A side effect is an undesirable response to a drug when taken at normal doses. It can be mild or severe, temporary or permanent.
The side effects listed below are not felt by everyone who takes this medicine. If you are worried about side effects, discuss the risks and benefits of this medicine with your doctor.
At least 1% of people taking this medicine have reported the following side effects. A lot of these side effects can be taken care of and a few can go away on their own with time.
Consult your doctor if you experience these side effects and if they are serious or bothersome. Your pharmacist may be able to give you advice on what to do if these side effects occur:
anxiety or nervousness
clumsiness or instability;
swelling of the face
a feeling of weakness or lightheadedness
a “hangover” sensation;
nightmares or sleep disturbances;
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